Hello, to all my dedicated and loyal readers – and to each and every new follower that comes my way! I am so excited this year to bring you the great news that the Handwriting is Fun! Blog has been a hit! Let me take a moment of your “last day of the year” to share our Top 10 (all thanks to you!)
To describe the challenge of teaching (or reteaching) handwriting to older children as a tug-of-war is an understatement!
Unfortunately, they have learned so many ineffective habits that their motor memory for handwriting resists any changes. When a young guy or gal resists a try at slanting the paper and says, “But, I write better with my paper straight up and down” when, in fact, his or her handwriting is illegible…well, that’s just a natural response to the pull on an ingrained motor memory. And messy, unreadable handwriting may appear to be simply the result of a student’s rushing through his work; but, in fact, it can be due to handwriting skills that have not been fully developed and the inability of the writer to produce fluent and automatic letter formations.
Steve Graham, during his tenure as a Curry Ingram Professor of Special Education and Literacy at Vanderbuilt University, authored an enlightening article, “Want to Improve Children’s Writing? Don’t Neglect Their Handwriting.” In this report, he shares research that indicates that while most people’s handwriting becomes fluid and automatic, “researchers do not yet know when most youngsters reach this point, but it does not appear to be during the early elementary years. In grades 4 to 6, handwriting fluency still accounts for 42 percent of the variability in the quality of children’s writing and students’ handwriting speed continues to increase at least until grade 9.” With that said, it is definitely not too late to tug on the motor memories of older students!
So, how do we do that, you say? I’ve put together 5 starting points to lay the groundwork for improving handwriting skills of older children.
It’s important to remember one very significant point here: If a child is struggling with handwriting in 2nd, 3rd, or 4th grade, then chances are that there is an underlying cause that has more to do with vision or cognitive skills than with sitting down at a desk and reproducing the letter “c” 4-5 times per line! Hence, it is important to seek some advice from your child’s doctor, as well as an occupational therapist who is trained in handwriting skill assessment and remediation.
OK, NOW THAT WE HAVE THAT OUT OF THE WAY…
1. First, I cannot stress enough the importance of appropriate body and paper positioning!
As we age, we develop our own “style” of sitting posture. This is actually a result of the seating arrangements we’ve been exposed to, as well as the physical strengths that we have acquired, throughout the first years of our lives. Posture – “shoulders back, back straight, and eyes forward” – is not a luxury and should be taught early in a child’s educational experience. Good posture provides students with the tools they need to utilize rhythm and movement to produce fluid handwritng strokes. We can only help them to learn the correct posture if we provide them with the appropriate chair and desk heights that address their individual needs.
Once we have positioned the body effectively, we need to align the writing surface efficiently to allow for a smooth, legible handwriting style. A slightly slanted paper provides right-handed writers with the ease of gliding across the paper, while it also lessens the chance for left-handed writers to smudge their work.
2. Now we can focus on the “reinvention of the pencil grip!”
Children with weak muscles in their upper extremities have often adapted to that by grabbing hold of the pencil for dear life and pushing it into the paper! Some have no idea that their grip is too loose and are frequently having to pick the pencil up off the floor as it “seems to fall out of my hand all of the time!” I’d like to say that all you need to do is to find the right adaptive pencil grip. HOWEVER, I’m not going to say that because then we would be jumping to a Bandaid fix before we address the underlying cause of the problem.
Learning a new hobby is fun, too!
Learning a new hobby is fun, too!
As with any other muscle development program, exercises that are designed to address specific muscle groups are the foundational elements of a fitness plan. I’ve learned over the years that older students tend to follow through on a program if it interests them! A fine-motor exercise program can include art projects, music practice, gardening tasks, and sports practice. Once you have their interest, then you can offer strengthening activities such as modeling clay, finger strengthening exercises for guitar skills, arm and hand exercises to enhance their baseball game, or hand strengthening activities for gardening tasks. They won’t even know they are working on grip strength!
3. But what about those “gross” ways that some children hold their pencils?
It is important to look at the practical side of things. Not all pencil grasping patterns are created equal. Some are efficient even if they are, well, ugly! So, as they say, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” However, if the students are experiencing handwriting challenges, and their preferred grip appears to be one of the culprits, then it is definitely important to address it.
A tripod grasp is reasonably comfortable for most writers. The pencil is held between the thumb and index finger, resting on the middle finger about an inch from the pencil point. (Left-handed writers should hold their pencil back a bit further from the tip to encourage an appropriate wrist position.) One of the ways that I encourage the switch to this grip is by challenging my older students to tuck a cotton ball into the palm of their hand and to hold it there with their ring and little fingers. This reminds them to keep those fingers OUT OF THE WAY while it strengthens the motor memory for a tripod grasp. They can use a penny or small eraser, too.
4. Give them lots of movement and sensory experiences.
Get their eyes moving with challenging games like tether ball. Hang a soft ball from the ceiling on a string, any size from 5-10″ around, positioned at eye level. They can practice precision eye movements by “keeping their eye on the ball” while tapping it up or sideways in controlled patterns.
The Vision Tracking Tube is a fun challenge for older students!
Sensory activities, such as kneading bread dough, planting in the garden, jumping and reaching in basketball, or running and reaching in tennis, combine movement, vision, and proprioception to enhance fine motor skills.
Visualization is an essential skill for the automatic reproduction of letters and words. Drawing letter formations in the air, identifying those that are “written” on your back, or “blind writing” (drawing letters, numbers, or pictures with your eyes closed) are fun visualization activities. And even older students can enjoy using finger paints to practice letter formations, drawing letters in shaving cream, or finding the hidden beads in putty! Believe me, even the adults enjoy that!
5.Finally, PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE!
No, not by pulling out a worksheet and attempting to reproduce a perfect letter time after time. (I’m not sure any of us can actually do that!) But, encourage creative writing with ideas that also practice their handwriting. Journals, poems, stories, newspaper articles, and letters to relatives are wonderful (and useful) ways to provide meaningful opportunities for older students to practice and hone their handwriting skills. And Cursive Clubs have begun to spring up all over as fun ways to turn handwriting skills from Practiced to Functional!
So, what do you think? Willing to give it a try? I would love to hear your tricks for older students and your feedback!
As always, thanks for reading and I hope to see you again soon!
(1) Graham, Steve. “Want To Improve Children’s Writing? Don’t Neglect Their Handwriting.” American Educator 2009-2010 Winter (2010): 20+. Http://orbida.org/resources/events/GRAHAMHANDWRITING.PDF. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <http://orbida.org/resources/events/GRAHAMHANDWRITING.PDF>.
Pictures above that are the property of the author must provide a link back to this article or her website.
1 Disclaimer: This article is provided for informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for legal advice or the professional judgement of health care professionals in evaluating and treating patients. The author encourages the reader to review and verify the timeliness of information found on supporting links before it is used to make professional decisions. The author also encourages practitioners to check their state OT regulatory board/agency for the latest information about regulatory requirements regarding the provision of occupational therapy via telehealth.
My Handy Handwriting Tool Box: A q-tip, cotton ball, and some sandpaper!
During my first year as a pediatric, school-based occupational therapist, I became a hoarder. Yes, I can openly admit it. A bone fide hoarder of gadgets, gizmos, whirligigs, and thingies. If something even hinted at me that it could be used toward the development of any imaginable skill, I stuffed it into my car trunk. Soon, the trunk became a California Closet, with bins and buckets and baskets. At this point, of course, I needed a “more efficient” mode of transportation between car and school. And out came the roller boards and sail bags! Soon, I stopped going to the gym because my day job became my daily workout! Yep. I had lots of stuff. But in the end, the economy of energy and time demanded that I spend a weekend sifting through my collection to determine what I actually did use (kind of like Pinterest!). My OT Tool Box is quite small now and actually lots more fun. Today, let’s chat about three simple Handwriting Helper Tools that are small, inexpensive, and very functional!
Handwriting development and remediation should encourage students to develop tactile, fine motor, and postural skills. These will build a solid foundation for a fluid, legible handwriting style. I keep three tools handy that can address these skills during fun, “I don’t even know I’m practicing my handwriting,” activities!
My Small Handwriting Tool Box
1. A q-tip: The length and circumference of a q-tip is just perfect for developing the tripod grasp. It does not leave much room for any additional fingers! The goal is to work on the tactile and fine motor development of the thumb, index, and long fingers on the “barrel” versus placement in the webspace of the hand. It is light and encourages the students to put pressure on their fingers to control and manipulate it. At the same time, its weight allows students with weaker hands to participate in the activity more easily. They are inexpensive and can be purchased at any discount dollar store.
painting, dipped in water, and dry tracing
Prone to be Good Practice: Toddlers and preschoolers will enjoy lying on their tummies and propped up on their elbows while they paint with their q-tips on a large piece of paper taped to the floor. This builds postural strength while they develop their age-appropriate grasping skills.
Wall Workout: Shoulder, arm, and trunk muscles get a nice workout with activities that are taped to the wall or completed on a chalkboard.* Pre-schoolers, kindergarteners, and elementary students can practice tracing over lines, shapes, letter formations, and words with their dry q-tips on paper taped to the wall. They can “erase” those that have been written in chalk on construction paper or on a chalk board using their q-tip dipped in water. Be sure they are following the appropriate directional concepts.
I Can See You: Students can build their tripod grasp, as well as shoulder strength and visualization skills, by writing with their q-tip in the air. This is a simple warm-up activity to introduce a new letter formation. Provide a visual demonstration of the letter on the board, with auditory directions as you write it. With your back to the class, draw it in the air with your q-tip using the same auditory directions. Then have the students mimic you as they draw them in the air as well.
2. A cotton ball: A cotton ball comes in handy for the development of pencil grasp and letter formations. It is light and compact and allows students to work on tactile and visual skills any time, any place! A bag of cotton balls is inexpensive and easy to carry in your tool box.
hold it, blow on it
Got You In The Palm of My Hand: Students who struggle with keeping their ring and little fingers in the resting position and off the pencil barrel will find a cotton ball to be their friend! They can tuck it into the palm of their hand and use those two fingers to keep it in place as they practice their handwriting. This will build the motor memory for a tripod grasping pattern.
They can use it during art work, too! It’s a hidden tool that, even if it falls on the floor, it’s a silent partner!
Cotton Ball Races: Students of every age enjoy this game! It can be done with or without a straw, on a table or on the floor. Very versatile! Blowing at the cotton ball encourages the development of eye convergence – bringing the eyes together to view close work. If you add a target to aim at, the game also works on accommodation skills – switching between close and far work with ease and efficiency (like copying from the board).
3. Some Sandpaper: Sandpaper writing or drawing encourages the development of tactile awareness and enhances a student’s ability to determine how much pressure he is exerting on his fingers and on the pencil. A too light or too heavy pressure can slow down a writer and lead to hand fatigue and illegible handwriting. Sandpaper can be purchased inexpensively and is reusable!
handwriting practice, art activities
Rub It Off: Place a drawing or handwriting worksheet that’s been completed in pencil on top of a piece of sandpaper that been cut to the same size. Have the students erase the pencil marks with a pencil top eraser to “make it new again.” The sandpaper provides tactile input for pressure control. They will have to exert the “just right” amount of pressure to be sure they don’t tear the paper. If they are working on letter formations, be sure that they erase in the appropriate directions to encourage motor memory development. You can add shoulder and trunk skills if you tape this activity to the wall or perform it on the floor!
Step-by-Step Drawing: Have your students use a pencil** to complete a step-by-step drawing activity or to copy a picture on paper over sandpaper. The sandpaper will provide tactile awareness for the controlled fine-motor movements necessary for duplicating specific lines and shapes – just like letter formations. And again, the students will be practicing their pencil pressure skills to be sure that their drawing is visible and that they don’t tear the paper. You can substitute the bond paper with heavy-duty tissue paper to increase the challenge for those students in the final stages of mastering pencil pressure. You can add postural strengthening by taping the activity to the wall or on the floor.
I’d love to hear about three of your “tool box must have’s!”
As always, thanks for reading! See you next time!
*A chalkboard provides more tactile input than a dry-erase board and develops pencil control skills. **A pencil (or chalk) provides more tactile input than a marker and encourages the development of pencil pressure and control skills.