Slow Down! Handwriting is not a race!

Keijj44 pixabaySlow Down! Handwriting is not a race!

by Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L

on the Handwriting is Fun! Blog

I recently received an inquiry through my Handwriting With Katherine website regarding an aspect of handwriting that can be the final mastery challenge for many of my older students: handwriting speed.  My reader wrote:

“I have a 6th grade boy who writes crazy fast!  He wrote 99 letters/minute today.  According to the criteria I have, he should only need to be writing ~50 letters per minute for his age (11 years old).  And of course it looks very messy.”

This therapist indicated that the student produced “great precision and control when he slows down;” and while his grip was not considered anything “to be desired,” it was functional and did not affect his precision. His speed was affecting his ability to produce legible written work.  The therapist also inquired about the use of metronomes and music to assist in slowing her writer down.

Since I’m sure there are many therapists and teachers who have students who race through their written assignments, I thought I’d share my response to her. Here are some tips for helping students to get out of the handwriting race!

Editing Skills provide a foundation for appropriate speed.

Writing too fast can actually slow the writer down.  This can be both a good and a not-so-good thing.  In both cases, this is only true if students have been taught self-editing skills.  Self-monitoring their own work has been shown to increase the students’ sense of ownership and responsibility for their work (Thomson & Gilchrist, ed., p. 123).  They should understand the reasons for editing and have been instructed in the appropriate ways to incorporate editing skills as they are writing.  The foundation for self-editing is an important facet of a structured and guided handwriting instruction program.  In the early learning stages, they are taught to review their handwriting skills by going back to review a line of letter formation practice exercises as they complete each one.  As they become more proficient and begin to write words then sentences, they will train their eyes to recognize letter formation, alignment, and spacing errors as they are writing.  With these editing tools in hand, speedy writers will find themselves having to frequently

Self-editing skills (Photo property of Handwriting with Katherine)
Self-editing skills
(Photo property of Handwriting with Katherine)

erase and rewrite their work during its production.  As they recognize an error, they will attend to it and make the corrections.  So, editing can slow the pace of students’ handwriting.  This is a good thing if the writers are not producing so many errors that the time used in erasing and correcting hampers their ability to produce legible written work that accurately shares their knowledge in a timely manner.  This would indicate that the students have not yet mastered the foundational skills necessary for handwriting mastery.  In this case, it is important to return to practice or rehabilitation activities that will address letter formation, alignment, and spacing skills.  If the writers are producing sloppy work because of speed and not due to poor foundational skills, and their current level of self-editing has not assisted them in slowing down, then I suggest a fun game to help them to become “turtles.”  (Don’t let the name fool you. This game is appropriate for children in all grades.)

The Turtle Race.  For students who write very, very fast, I present an activity that is the opposite of my “Minute Mania” strategy.  (You can find many other excellent handwriting activities in my book, “Handwriting Development Assessment and Remediaiton:  A Process Model for Occupational Therpists.” )
Where in the “Minute Mania” strategy you ask the student to write very fast and worry about editing later, the “Turtle Race” is just the opposite.  Although I feel that metronomes and music can be effective timing tools, they do not present the functional basis for slowing down in a “fun and playful” way.*  I feel that this activity can do just that!

1. As with the “Minute Mania” strategy, you and the student can come up with a silly sentence (versus words) consisting of 5-8 words (perhaps more depending upon the age and handwriting skill of the student).

2. Present the sentence in typewritten format to prevent confusion over letter formations or handwriting style and cut the words into individual pieces of paper.

3. Place the individual words in sentence format above the student’s paper or taped on the board, depending on what type of task you are working on (near or distance copying).

4. Provide the student with these directions:

• Explain that the object of the game is to help him slow his handwriting speed in order to produce legible written work in a timely manner. Discuss self-editing strategies and how they are used to recognize and correct handwriting errors during the writing process.  (If the student is unfamiliar with these strategies – e.g., attention to detail and focusing on the letters produced versus his hand or pencil – take time to provide some


instruction in them.)  Discuss the importance of correcting errors right away, so that during writing assignments he won’t have so many words to edit after his assignment is complete.  Explain that in the “Turtle Game,” he will correct his work during the writing process.  In addition, he will conduct a final edit of his work at the end of the game. At that time, he will create a score for the game by recording the number of words that he needed to rewrite during the final edit.  Finally, be sure that the student understands that the lowest score during final editing is the better one.

• Explain to the student that you will be pointing to each word in the order it appears in the sentence and that he will have a certain amount of time during each pointing to copy the word.  Emphasize that he cannot move on to the next word until you have pointed to it, so the student has LOTS of time to write it as neatly as he can and to edit his work.  You can decide on the amount of time you will allow for each word.  For example, 30 seconds per word for very fast writers will provide them with a sense that they have enough time to go slow; and that even though they may go fast, they will have to wait until the time is up until they can move on.

*You can enhance the students’ sense of timing by adding a metronome to the game, using its rhythmic sound and speed to help the writers’ slow down their handwriting speed.  Be sure to explain and demonstrate its purpose in the game and gradually remove it from the game to encourage carryover in a functional task.

• Be sure to let the student know that he should edit his work as it is written and not to wait until the end.

• Finally, remind the student that final editing will occur after the game; and for each word that includes an error, he will be asked to rewrite the word correctly and record the number of words that required rewriting. Remind him that the lowest score during final editing is the better one.  You can even make up a rubric for this if you want to so the student can monitor his own progress and take responsibility for it after each session.

5.  Now, students will most likely continue to write very fast at first even though you’ve given them time to work on each word.  This is a habit; and just like any other, it will need time to be replaced with a better one.  Don’t get discouraged.  Let them work it out as the game goes along.

6.  After the student has written the entire sentence, have him conduct the final edit and rewrite each word below the original, allowing the same amount of time you provided for each word during the original writing.  Have the student tell you what needs to be edited; and if he cannot find the errors, go ahead and discuss each word and/or letter formation with him.

7.  Have the student record his score on a score pad or your rubric.  Be sure to discuss his progress to help him understand the types of corrective actions that can help him improve his score.

8.  Then, run the “Turtle Race” again, with the same sentence, using the same time limits, and reminding the studentFotoShopTofs pixabay that he will want to beat his own score. Self-competition is a friendly, less stressful strategy for some students.  For others, healthy competition with another person can facilitate an understanding of speed and the motivation to slow down.

• If you are working with an individual student, you can add a more competitive component by including yourself in the game.  Both you and the student can write the words of the sentence sticking to the time limits.  By working alongside the student, you can demonstrate appropriate speed and timing, allowing him to get a sense of how fast he is writing compared with your speed.

• If you are working with more than one student at a time in your session or within a classroom setting, you can group the students and have them compete with each other by comparing scores.  This set-up can also provide students with an opportunity to model their speed after the slower writers.

Ideas for turning this strategy from practice into function.

• You can work with the student’s vocabulary or spelling lists.  Instead of providing a sentence format, simply flip over the words as they are presented in the “Minute Mania” game using a specific time limit for each word.

• Story-telling works well to incorporate writing skills into the session (which is the ultimate goal for handwriting mastery).  Have the student dictate a very short story to you, type it or write it on the board, and then conduct the game as originally presented.  As you point out the words, the student is actually recording his own original story.

Be Patient!  Sometimes the “Turtle Game” strategy very quickly accomplishes its goal of alerting students to the need to slow down.  Other times, it can take a while but then it clicks in.  Be patient – with yourself, the student, and the game.  There will always be a learning curve and it’s best to just let the learning take its course.  Remember, each student learns differently and that approaches to the game need to take those learning styles into account.

Be Prepared!  As an introductory preparation for this game, its best to begin with an activity that focuses on gross motor skills, especially those that include a visual component that requires diminished speed and precision.

• Let’s say for the little ones, the activity can be as simple as having them carry small objects across the room with a spoon to deposit into a small container.  This can work for older children, as well, if the props are appropriate.

• For older children, try a tether ball activity.  Hang a soft baseball-sized ball by a string from an overhead light or a ceiling tile at a height slightly above or at the students’ eye level.  Have your students stand about an arm’s length away, slightly less, and bat at it lightly.  Explain to them that the object is to have the ball cross just over their midline, back and forth just traveling from shoulder to shoulder.  Speed will need to be slower in order to maintain shoulder width and to keep the ball in control.  To help the students measure their speed, have them recite the alphabet slowly with each tap.  It also helps to enter into a conversation with the students, demonstrating speed by measuring the timing of your words.  As they converse with you, the students can model your speed.

I feel it’s very important to keep the functional aspect of therapy in the forefront of the student’s mind. Why do we need to write slow?  For the same reason we need to walk slowly with the spoon or tap the ball lightly – to maintain control and accuracy.  During the “Turtle Race,” discuss the reason why control and accuracy are important – many times!  It’s the ultimate object of the game, after all!  Enjoy!

The Handwriting is Fun! Blog is published and is the property of Handwriting With Katherine.

Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, owner, Handwriting With Katherine
Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, owner, Handwriting With Katherine

Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, is a pediatric occupational therapist who specializes in the assessment and remediation of handwriting skills. In her current book, Handwriting Development Assessment and Remediation: A Practice Model for Occupational Therapists, she shares a comprehensive guide and consistent tool for addressing handwriting development needs. She can be contacted via her website, Handwriting With Katherine.

Collmer Handwriting Development Assessment and Remediation

Reference:  Thomson, P., Gilchrist, P., ed. Dyslexia – A multidisciplinary approach. Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd., United Kingdom, 1997.

Pictures that are marked the property of the author must provide a link back to this article or her website. All others must provide a link to the originating source.

Disclaimer: The information shared on the Handwriting With Katherine website, blog, Facebook page, Twitter page, Pinterest page; in the Universal Publishing Handwriting Teachers’ Guides; on any guest blog posts or any other social media is for general informational purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice or evaluation and care from your physician/medical team or any other qualified health care providers. Therefore, the author of these links/posts take no responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk taken by individuals as a result of applying the ideas or resources.

Growth Mindsets: Their Implications in Pediatric Occupational Therapy

mind john hain pixabay

Growth Mindsets:  Their Implications in Pediatric Occupational Therapy

by Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L

What is the element in therapy that transforms a goal from one focused upon performance to that which targets learning?  What facet of our service approach drives motivation and addresses or prevents the client’s sense of “learned helplessness?”  At what point do we, as therapists, influence the mindset of our clients and facilitate their growth in rehabilitation?

These questions lie at the foundation of our own growth as a profession as the health care reform initiatives align with our long-held principles of client-centered treatment.  But, just as we are beginning to understand that the medical community is catching up to our perspective, we are equally becoming aware that a client-centered practice framework can produce outcomes that reflect the “shift toward value-based-reimbursement” and “challenge(s) occupational practitioners to demonstrate their unique contributions” (1) to healthcare.  In turn, the quality of a framework that stresses the importance of individuality, holism, and a sense of self and one that values the development of both the individual and a client-therapist relationship is contingent in part on the (client’s) experience of care and his perspective of his involvement in the process.  Toward that end, research and discussions have been directed toward the development of a “working alliance” and a stable relationship that foster a positive rapport with our clients and serves as a means for active participation in their service plans. (2)

possible-geralt pixabay

Active participation implies motivation.  And motivation suggests a belief that one can succeed in his attempts to learn and grow and to achieve his personal potential.  Our ability to motivate our clients demands a certain awareness of the ways in which people are motivated and how their responses to failures can provoke either a helpless response or the determination to master new things and conquer challenges.  Carol Dweck, author of Mindset:  The New Psychology of Success, conducted research to uncover the factors that motivate and direct a learner’s pattern of success or failure.  She concluded that children who were guided toward persisting in the face of challenges and encouraged to believe that failures were due to their lack of trying versus a lack of ability developed “mastery-oriented patterns.”  (3)  Their “attributions” toward success and failure reflected their judgments about the causes of events and behavior, as well as the recognition of the consequences of those attributions, and drove them to strive for learning versus performance.  There is an important difference between performance-oriented and learning-focused goals.  Dweck noted that performance goals focus upon demonstrating the ability to do something while learning-focused goals encourages the increase of ability.  The difference lies in one being static and fixed and the other dynamic and malleable.  The success of client-centered therapy relies upon the participant believing that he has the ability to increase his ability.  It is based upon a growth mindset.

Fostering a Growth Mindset in a Therapeutic Environment

Mindset is defined as “a fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a person’s responses to and interpretations of situations.”  It is a frame-of-mind, a perspective, and a set of behaviorisms that become an inclination or a habit.  According to the prominent dictionaries, a habit is a recurrent and often unconscious behavior that is acquired through frequent repetition and becomes an established disposition of the mind or character.  Therefore, habits can be developed as well as broken.  Fostering a growth mindset in our pediatric therapy sessions is a viable and applicable target in a client-centered service delivery model.  The same assumptions about success relative to a child’s level of academic achievement can be applied to a pediatric client’s success toward therapy goals.  A research team reviewed the literature that studied the “noncognitive factors” involved in student learning.   These included both their Academic Behaviors, such as going to class, completing homework, active classroom engagement, and studying, and their levels of Academic Perseverance, labeled as tenacity or stick-to-it-ness.  They both were determined to be indicators of how likely a child was to continue to pursue academic goals despite challenges.  (4) The results of the review suggested that “one of the best levers for increasing students’ perseverance and improving their academic behaviors (was) by supporting the development of Academic Mindsets.”

key GLady PixabayThe key mindsets that the research team defined as those associated with increased perseverance, better academic behaviors, and higher grades can be applied to our therapy services.

  • Belonging to a learning community.  Our therapy sessions revolve around learning (or unlearning) habits and behaviors that will enhance a child’s opportunity for success.  Our willingness to build a rapport that fosters trust and develops into a working alliance that encourages communication, and in the end becomes a stable relationship that incorporates the child’s opinions and ideas into the rehabilitation process, encourages a sense of belonging in the therapy environment.  (2)
  • Belief in the likelihood of success.  Studies have shown that self-efficacy was a strong determinant of success among similar-ability students.  A child’s sense of his ability to succeed is “malleable” and can be influenced by feedback on performance and ability, as well as the provision of training and assistance with setting goals. (4)  The core components of client-centered care (respect, collaboration, communication, support, and inclusion) and the part that hope and self-perception play in an occupational practice (1) foster the building of self-efficacy.  It is our role as occupational therapists to help our clients to “celebrate” their willingness to take risks, to allow themselves to fail, and to learn from those failures. (5)
  • Belief that abilities and intelligence can grow with effort.  Carol Dweck considers students with a growth mindset to believe that “the brain is like a muscle” that gets stronger with use.  (6, qtd in 4) They are motivated by mastery and enjoy challenging themselves with new ideas and learning opportunities.  (4)  It is our role as therapy practitioners to provide the “just-right challenges” that will build brain muscle and encourage our clients to believe that they can learn and grow despite their personal challenges.
  • Belief in a sense of meaning and value surrounding the work.  As we continue to interpret and make meaning of our experiences, our brains are looking for connections in order to process new information and ideas.  (4)  Tasks and information that do not represent meaning nor constitute any value to our clients will fall short of the mark and limit their potential for success.   Purposeful activities are planned and directed tasks that are key to planning an occupational therapy program, while meaningful activities are those that achieve the program goals through an intrinsic motivation for the patient.  (7)  It is our role as therapists to offer our clients activities that are both purposeful and meaningful and that will bring them back to therapy to build the sense of belonging and self-efficacy that results from a mastery mindset.

Fostering a learning mindset in therapy begins with the principles laid out in the client-centered approach to our occupational practice that build rapport, a working alliance, and a stable relationship, no matter the age of client.

Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, owner, Handwriting With Katherine
Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, owner, Handwriting With Katherine

atherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, is a pediatric occupational therapist who specializes in the assessment and remediation of handwriting skills. In her current book, Handwriting Development Assessment and Remediation: A Practice Model for Occupational Therapists, she shares a comprehensive guide and consistent tool for addressing handwriting development needs. She can be contacted via her website, Handwriting With Katherine.

Collmer Handwriting Development Assessment and Remediation

Photos are the property of photographers on Pixabay and their use should include the link attached to their photographs. 
 Disclaimer: The information shared on the Handwriting With Katherine website, blog, Facebook page, Twitter page, Pinterest page; in the Universal Publishing Handwriting Teachers’ Guides; on any guest blog posts or any other social media is for general informational purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice or evaluation and care from your physician/medical team or any other qualified health care providers. Therefore, the author of these links/posts take no responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk taken by individuals as a result of applying the ideas or resources.
  1. Mroz, Tracy M., Jennifer S. Pitonyak, Donald Fogelberg, and Natalie E. Leland. “Client Centeredness and Health Reform: Key Issues for Occupational Therapy.” Am J Occup Ther American Journal of Occupational Therapy 69.5 (2015): 1-8. Web. 3 Oct. 2015.
  2. Collmer, Katherine J., M.Ed., OTR/L. “Client-centered Practice in Pediatrics.” Handwriting Is Fun! Blog. Handwriting With Katherine, 29 Sept. 2015. Web. 3 Oct. 2015. <>.
  3. Krakovsky, Marina. “The Effort Effect.” Stanford Magazine. Stanford University, Mar.-Apr. 2007. Web. 03 Oct. 2015. <>.
  4. Farrington, Camille A. “Academic Mindsets as a Critical Component of Deeper Learning.” Hewlett Foundation News. William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2015. <>.
  5. Schwartz, Katrina. “What’s Your Learning Disposition? How to Foster Students’ Mindsets.” MindShift. KQED News, 25 Mar. 2014. Web. 03 Oct. 2015. <>.
  6. Dweck, Carol S. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. S.l.: Random House, 2008. Print.
  7. Senior, Rob. “Better, Faster, Stronger.” Better, Faster, Stronger. Advance Healthcare Network, 28 Sept. 2010. Web. 03 Oct. 2015. <>.

Client-centered practice in pediatrics

For the month of September, the Handwriting is Fun! Blog will be sharing insights about the role of Occupational Therapy in the classroom.  In recent years, the role of OT, in general, has been changing with the waves of healthcare and education reforms.  Despite a certain amount of turmoil and confusion where those changes may have thrown us a curve ball, most often they have provided us with an opportunity to make a difference in an area in which we’ve longed to see an improvement.  Client involvement is an excellent example of a concept that can turn the tide in school-based and pediatric practice.   Although this concept is relatively new in pediatrics, it remains an important one to embrace as we enter this new generation of healthcare and education perspectives.  In that light, this week’s article focuses upon the concepts that define a client-centered therapeutic approach and the implications for its use in all facets of occupational therapy, including pediatrics and in the schools.


Inclusion geralt pixabay



Client-centered practice in pediatrics.

by Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L







The rehabilitation process and client-centered practice:  Defined

The rehabilitation process can be defined as a “reiterative, active, educational, problem solving process focused on a patient’s behavior (disability)” that uses assessment, goal setting, intervention, and evaluation tools to achieve its objectives.  The objective of the rehabilitation process includes maximizing the client’s participation in his or her environment and to minimize the effects of pain and distress on the client and client families. (1)  In recent years, the approach to rehabilitation has moved from a “predominantly medical one to one in which psychological and sociocultural aspects are equally important.”  This has resulted in transforming the rehabilitation process into a client-centered practice where the personal perspectives and backgrounds of the client are becoming increasingly important.

The process of rehabilitation is complex (1) and works within a structure that demands the collaboration of a multi-disciplinary team who works toward client-specific goals and encourages involvement of the individual and his or her family.  (2)  In the past, this group included professionals from the medial, therapeutic, and ancillary staff of the hospital, school, clinic, or facility where the client was receiving services.  Family members and caregivers in the adult environment were invited to participate in team meetings, training, and decision making events along with the client.  The client’s level of participation in the process rested on his or her capacity for understanding the choices and for making decisions.   A child-centered rehabilitation process, however, typically includes the professionals on the team and the family members responsible for the child’s wellbeing.  The child most often serves in an “invisible role” on the team appearing for the assessment and therapeutic interventions but rarely for events that would determine his or her goals for therapy.  The move toward a client-centered practice has not completely turned the corner into pediatrics.



children omarmedinard pixabayThe rehabilitation process in the pediatric practice remains the same regardless of the arena within which it is carried out.  The provision of therapy in the clinic or hospital, the home or the school, begins and ends with the same tools as it seeks to achieve the highest level of independence for the clients.  Our clients are young, ranging from birth to around 18 years of age, and present with a wide range of strengths and needs.  They are all individuals and deserve strategies for care that respect them as such.

In that light, the process of their care in any environment should include them in what has been described as a “working alliance.” This relationship “is formed as individuals collaborate with one another to develop common goals and as they develop a sense of shared responsibility for working on tasks that are involved in achieving those goals.” (Bordin, E.S., 1979, qtd. in 4) The development and maintenance of rapport, mutual respect, and collaboration between therapists and their clients have been linked to the therapeutic relationship that standards of practice OT2fosters client participation in their own rehabilitation.  (4) Client participation has been considered a focal point in occupational therapy and is reflected in the professional standards established by the American Occupational Therapy Association.  They clearly state that occupational therapists will collaborate with the client in the assessment of his or her skills and during the development and implementation of the intervention plan. (5)

However, results of a 1995 study of the participation of adult patients in their rehabilitation process conducted by Northen et al. (5, quoted in 6) determined that the “maximum potential of client-centered practice was not realized throughout the treatment process.” This was linked primarily to inconsistencies in the use of structured methods for encouraging client participation in the initial process as well as during the ongoing rehabilitation process.  Given the lack of data available that tracks client involvement in the pediatric practice, it is of value to discuss the implications of client-centered rehabilitation with children.


Client-centered therapy and its implications for pediatric outcomes.

Client-centered therapy implies that the person for whom the services are designed will actively and willingly participate in the rehabilitation process and includes both a “behavioral” and a “motivational” component on his part.   In the case of student “involvement,” this translates to the “amount of physical and psychological energy” that he devotes to the learning experience.  This involvement can be measured in both quantitative and qualitative terms using testing and the observation of functional use of skills. The student achieves both functional and personal development through his participation in this working alliance.  And the effectiveness of that alliance rests upon “the capacity of (the practitioner) to increase student involvement. (8)


Success of a client-centered occupational therapy practice depends upon two principal components, as outlined by Maitra and Erway, in their article “Perception of Client-Centered Practice in Occupational Therapists and Their Clients:”


  1. The desire and ability of the clients to take part in the decision-making process, and
  2. The desire and ability of the occupational therapists to include clients in the decision-making process. (6)


These two components rely upon the development and implementation of a team-based strategy that is designed to enhance both client and therapist involvement in the client-centered process.  This type of strategy is based upon three factors for success:  rapport, a working reliance, and a stable relationship.

Client Centered Process


The development of rapport, a working alliance, and a stable working relationship requires “an ongoing communication process that involves the exchange of information.” (4)*


Rapport.  Children rely on trust within each of their daily interactions with teachers, therapists, and school personnel.  Trust in a therapeutic partnership begins with the gathering and sharing of information about the client and the therapist, the demonstration of “cooperative intent” during the initial stages of the alliance, and the regulation of the student’s involvement in decision-making events.  Trust is built during informal discussions about activities that each enjoys, challenges they have faced, and goals for the future.  It continues to develop when each understands that the other can be flexible and accept changes in plans or challenges that push comfortable boundaries.  And, most importantly, trust is built when the therapist recognizes the student’s need to have less distraction or increased interaction in order to be successful.


Working Alliance.  As the rapport continues to develop, the therapist and client begin to focus on the goals and tasks that will define the student’s therapy.  Eleanor Cawley, MS., OTR/L, in her book, The Student Interview, stresses that the use of effective communication techniques can produce benefits that improve diagnosis and outcomes, treatment adherence, (and) patient satisfaction….” (9)  She refers to communication strategies that build a working alliance as avenues of exchange that can help students to build “a sense of self and of personal identity.” While her information partnership geralt pixabaytargets the adolescent population, students of any age will experience a sense of belonging and importance when the therapy plan is shared with them and decision making involves them at an age-appropriate level.

Perhaps one of the most significant facets of the development of rapport and a working alliance is the therapist’s and the student’s combined response to the success or failure of a therapy technique.  Tickle-Degnen, in her AJOT article, “Client-Centered Practice, Therapeutic Relationship, and the Use of Research Evidence,” (4) suggests the use of a recording tool** that documents the goals of the treatment and whether or not the task or strategy is accomplishing them.  In addition, in an effort to enhance the working relationship, she suggests that “occupational therapists should incorporate client satisfaction and frustration ratings” into this recording tool.  Children can easily express their feelings of frustration with a task, as well as their sense that it is beneficial.  The working alliance is a “living relationship” that continues to expand and contract as it becomes a stable working relationship.


Stable Relationship.  This phase of the client-centered therapeutic process has been described as the place where the “hard work of therapy begins” and one where the challenges and changes that provide opportunities for growth and skill in therapy can also “enhance the probability of ‘errors’ during interaction (and) threaten the continuation of the relationship.” (4) Communication and student engagement become an even more significant set of tools during this phase as these changes and challenges will require intrinsic motivation on the part of the student.  While student engagement is considered to be among the better predictors of learning and personal development, (12 qtd. in 10) with positive links to critical thinking and grades, (11) it has also been identified as an important tool that allows our young clients to express their priorities, goals, and impressions of therapy.  A stable relationship that fosters rapport and a working alliance relies upon the therapist’s ability to work alongside students in an effort to maintain an “authoritative” position that “gains control through interaction with the student and incorporates the student’s opinions and ideas” into the rehabilitation process.  Ultimately, this results in a “Student-Therapist Partnership.”  (9)


Barriers to implementing a client-centered practice.  Research has unveiled 4 significant barriers to implementing a client-centered practice that can be reflected in every therapeutic environment:

Barriers to Client Centered Process

We, as the service provider have control over our knowledge base and our feelings of comfort or insecurity that surround the implementation of a client-centered approach to therapy.  We can influence a student’s intrinsic motivation by attending to the development of rapport, a working alliance, and a stable working relationship and by adapting the process to meet his particular learning, cognitive, and physical needs.  We can influence the environment with the demonstration of success within our personal practice of client-centered therapy and with discussions about the benefits for increasing a client’s sense of worth and self-efficacy.



A client-centered approach to therapy is not a new concept.  The term was coined by Carl Rogers, an American humanistic psychologist, in his 1939 book, The clinical treatment of the problem child.  In it he stresses the importance of “individuality, holism, sense of self, the influence of the environment, values development, actualization, and goal-directed behavior” in both the individual’s overall development and the development of the client-therapist relationship.  (15, qtd. in 14) The Philosophical Base of Occupational Therapy (16) defines “participation in a meaningful occupation (as) a determinant of health.”  It stresses the same concepts of therapy as Rogers, describing the environment, intrinsic individual factors, occupational contexts, and inherent characteristics of the activity as significant factors to consider as we develop a focus and outcome expectations to encourage and enhance our clients’ engagement in meaningful occupations.  Children, our students and clients, deserve the opportunity to use “occupation” as a change agent, as well as an individual means to achieve their goals, and to experience a client-centered therapeutic approach as a means for active participation in their service plan.


Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, owner, Handwriting With Katherine

Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, is a pediatric occupational therapist who specializes in the assessment and remediation of handwriting skills and understands the link between handwriting skills and writing.  She can be contacted via her website, Handwriting With Katherine.
  Disclaimer: The information shared on the Handwriting With Katherine website, blog, Facebook page, Twitter page, Pinterest page; in the Universal Publishing Handwriting Teachers’ Guides; on any guest blog posts or any other social media is for general informational purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice or evaluation and care from your physician/medical team or any other qualified health care providers. Therefore, the author of these links/posts take no responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk taken by individuals as a result of applying the ideas or resources.
 Photos are the property of the contributors of Pixabay and their use should include the link provided to the photographer’s source.
*The information in this section was adapted from Reference No. 4.
**Student Self-Assessments have been identified as tools that facilitate the collection of information relative to a student’s perception of his skill strengths and needs, his participation in therapy, and the value of the therapeutic interventions included in his rehabilitation plan.  Each self-assessment instrument should be reviewed prior to administration to measure its benefits and limitations for the audience for whom it is intended.   (13, 14)


  1. Wade, D. T., and B. A. DeJong. “Recent Advances: Recent Advances in Rehabilitation.” Bmj7246 (2000): 1385-388. Web. 15 Sept. 2015. <>.
  2. Wressle, Ewa. Client Participation in the Rehabilitation Process. Diss. Linköpings Universitet, 2002. Linköping: UniTryck, 2002. Print.
  3. Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16, 252–260.
  4. Tickle-Degnen, L. “Client-Centered Practice, Therapeutic Relationship, and the Use of Research Evidence.” American Journal of Occupational Therapy4 (2002): 470-74. Web. 15 Sept. 2015.
  5. “Standards of Practice for Occupational Therapy.” The American Journal of Occupational Therapy6 (2010): S106-111. Web. 5 Aug. 2015. Prepared by The Commission on Practice and presented as a Supplement to the American Journal of Occupational Therapy
  6. Maitra, K. K., and F. Erway. “Perception of Client-Centered Practice in Occupational Therapists and Their Clients.” American Journal of Occupational Therapy3 (2006): 298-310. Web. 15 Sept. 2015.
  7. Northen, J. G., Rust, D. M., Nelson, C. E, & Watts, J. H. (1995). Involvement of adult rehabilitation patients in set- ting occupational therapy goals. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49, 214–220.
  8. Astin, Alexander W. “Student Involvement: A Developmental Theory for Higher Education.” Journal of College Student Development Sept/Oct 40.No. 5 (1999): 518-29. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  9. Cawley, Eleanor, MS, OTR/L. The Student Interview. 2013. Print.
  10. Gan, C., K. A. Campbell, A. Snider, S. Cohen, and J. Hubbard. “Giving Youth a Voice (GYV): A Measure of Youths’ Perceptions of the Client-Centredness of Rehabilitation Services.” Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy2 (2008): 96-104. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  11. Carini, Robert M., George D. Kuh, and Stephen P. Klein. “Student Engagement and Student Learning: Testing the Linkages*.” Research in Higher Education Res High Educ1 (2006): 1-32. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  12. Engel-Yeger, B., L. Nagauker-Yanuv, and S. Rosenblum. “Handwriting Performance, Self-Reports, and Perceived Self-Efficacy Among Children With Dysgraphia.” American Journal of Occupational Therapy2 (2009): 182-92. Web. 8 Sept. 2015.
  13. Fredricks, Jennifer A., and Wendy McColskey. “The Measurement of Student Engagement: A Comparative Analysis of Various Methods and Student Self-report Instruments.” Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. New York: Springer, 2012. 763-82. Print.
  14. Corring, D., and J. Cook. “Client-Centred Care Means That I Am a Valued Human Being.” Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy2 (1999): 71-82. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  15. Rogers, C.R. (1939). The clinical treatment of the problem child. Boston, MA.: Houghton Mifflin.
  16. “The Philosophical Base of Occupational Therapy.” American Journal of Occupational Therapy6_Supplement (2011): n. pag. Web. 16 Sept. 2015. Authored by The Commission on Education


%d bloggers like this: