Handwriting Games that go BAM!

Adding a game format to handwriting practice increases student motivation.

By Kathryn Mason, OTR/L

On the Handwriting is Fun! Blog

Bam! Is a fun and challenging handwriting game that can be made with popsicle sticks and a jar!
Bam! for handwriting!

As a school-based occupational therapist, I understand that

most of us work in multiple schools and need to haul activities with us from building to building to meet the individual needs of many students. It is important to have activities that take up little space, are easily graded to address varied skill levels, and progress with the students. Limited school budgets heighten the need to find inexpensive activities that fit these requirements. It is also important to find strategies that will keep our students motivated toward participation in therapy and engaged in tasks designed to meet their academic goals. Handwriting mastery continues to be a goal for many of our students; and for this reason and those I’ve mentioned above, I’ve created a number of game adaptations designed to reinforce letter recognition, formation, and proper positioning.

Students became bored fairly quickly with the other activities, such as worksheets, that I had used previously to teach these components of correct printing. By adding a game format, students became much more motivated to work on the requested tasks. I started using them about 3 years ago and gradually discovered other benefits and ways to adapt the use of the games.

I began letting students pick the board and playing pieces they used and discovered that they felt more in control of the therapy session. I always let the students go first and I’ve designed the individual game die so that they were likely to win about 5 out of 6 games. This kept the students feeling successful and more motivated to work on the expected tasks. I was able to gradually grade the expectations required to move the playing piece and never experienced resistance from the students. I have used these games with students from the first to fourth grades, with diagnoses of learning disabilities, neurological conditions, Autism, and ADHD. I’d like to share two game adaptations with you now that I’ve created and that have helped my students build their handwriting development skills.

Bam!Takes On Handwriting Skills!

The first game adaptation I’ve developed is a variation of Bam! The game called “Bam!” is one in which the players are offered opportunities to learn new information through different learning strategies. The game is easily adaptable for any subject or skill. For example, the students can learn by answering science questions; solving math problems; identifying incorrectly spelled words; or, in our case, working on handwriting skills.

Many teachers use the Bam! game to teach sight words, but I could not find a version that addressed printing components. So, I decided to create one of my own! I wanted a sequence of activities that was easily gradable and could be played by students of varying skill levels, with the therapist or with the parent as a home program activity. By adapting the Bam! game for our needs, the strategy could be graded to allow for

verbally identifying upper vs. lower case letters,

verbally identifying lower case letter positions,

copying letters from a model, or

printing the letters using visual memory.

Data collection is conducted simply by counting the sticks showing letters with incorrect answers. The game can also be graded by starting with just “tall” and “small” letters, later adding in “tail” letters. Bam! sticks can also be used without actually playing the game. For instance, they can be placed in a row to form an upper case or lower case alphabet or to sort lower case letters into the three size and/or position groups.

The simple and inexpensive DIY materials needed to create the game can be found at home or at a dollar store and are listed on the downloadable game instructions you’ll find by clicking on the picture below.

Bam! For Handwriting Game Instructions

Generic Game Board Handwriting Games

Another game format I’ve developed is like that of a typical game board. Many homemade game boards are available on Pinterest by searching for “learning board games.” Many offer free printable board games designed to provide a wide variety of learning opportunities. I decided to try my hand at it and came up with several different styles that allowed the students to participate in the selection of the board. The structure is the same on all of the boards, with each consisting of 30 – 1.25” squares, allowing for play that includes the entire alphabet, start and win squares, and 2 “go for one more” squares. Each board progresses to the right, up one, back to the left, and up one until the winner moves to the right across the top row to the “Win” space. The directions provided in the downloadable handout below are given for the vehicle game board; however, the pictures in the slideshow present my other variations. I’ve used a variety of themes to appeal to my students’ interests, as well as different levels of advancement rules to address their individual needs.

Generic Board Games Downloadable Directions

A Game Board Slide Show!

Stickers are used to “theme” the boards for those interested in cars, sports, or current movies. On a more traditional style of board, students are asked to answer questions about letters (“Is this a ‘tall’ or ‘small’ letter?”) or print a requested letter in order to advance to the next space. Here’s a video of one of my students doing just that!

Game boards that are aimed at handwriting mastery can be designed easily and inexpensively.
Click on the board to watch a student playing a handwriting game!

The biggest challenge I was faced with as I created these games was how to compensate for the OT always having the right answer on his or her turn! My answer to that was to create special dice for the staff to use during their turn. I’ve included pictures of the dice and have explained their uses on the downloadable instruction sheet above.

Handwriting board games can include special dice that add to the fun and challenge of the game.

Including dice in the game offers additional advantages.

First, students almost always want to roll the die for the OT staff and this helps to develop the arches of the hand.

A second advantage is the opportunity for the students to practice regulating their movements. I’ve created a rule that has them lose the privilege of rolling the die if it rolls off the table. In some cases where the students needs extra assistance in this area, I will place a small box lid on the table to corral the thrown die.

Having the student throw the die for the therapist’s turn offers an additional advantage in that the child needs to put down the pencil and pick it up repeatedly, up to 26 times, depending on the board. This provides great practice on correct pencil grasp, with or without the use of a rubber adapted grip, and the student never notices this practice!

Also, I’ve selected various types of beads and other small items for the students to select as markers that are small enough to require pinch or tripod grasp. The downloadable directions offer additional modifications to help you grade the activity for your students.

Board game pieces can be found at home or a discount store.
Generic Board Game Pieces should be of a size that will facilitate refined grasp patterns and can be created from items found at home or markers rescued from other games.

And the students love them!

Students will often request that I bring a particular game board for the next session, showing that they are motivated to work on these activities. The games are great strategies to suggest to families for at-home play and practice rather than suggesting somewhat more “official homework.” It is nice to see the children laughing during sessions. They enjoy competing against the therapist or other students in group sessions. If the children in the group are at different levels, for example in different grades or are working on different skills, the challenge can be modified for each one as long as the modification is explained to them. It seems to me that games are a win-win for everyone!

A Success Story!

Comparison of the top handwriting sample with that of the bottom demonstrates the benefits of using an adapted game board.

A very verbal first grade student with Autism transferred into our school. It was difficult to determine his true functional level because he appeared to demonstrate a lack of motivation towards classroom activities that were presented to him. Questions were raised as to whether it was motivation or skill level. I decided to use a game board strategy to help me tease out the answer. The top sample of his handwriting (above) was completed in the morning in his classroom. The bottom sample (a section of the completed alphabet) was completed the same day in an occupational therapy session using adapted paper and an adapted game board designed to increase motivation with a handwriting activity. Impressive, wouldn’t you say?

Kathryn Mason, OTR/L, is a graduate of Tufts University 1977, BSOT. She was previously the Director of the OTA Program at J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, Richmond, Virginia. Currently she is working in the Chesterfield County Public Schools in Virginia. She can be reached at Kathywmason@yahoo.com

All photos are the property of the author and cannot be used without her permission.

Disclaimer: The information shared on the Handwriting With Katherine website, blog, Facebook page, Twitter page, Pinterest page; in the Universal Publishing Handwriting Teachers’ Guides; on any guest blog posts or any other social media is for general informational purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice or evaluation and care from your physician/medical team or any other qualified health care providers. Therefore, the author of these links/posts take no responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk taken by individuals as a result of applying the ideas or resources.

The Handwriting is Fun! Blog is published and is the property of Handwriting With Katherine.

An OT Advocate for Change: Handwriting gets the help it deserves.

For the month of September, the Handwriting is Fun! Blog will be sharing insights about the role of Occupational Therapy in the classroom.  In recent years, the role of OT, in general, has been changing with the waves of healthcare and education reforms.  Despite a certain amount of turmoil and confusion where those changes may have thrown us a curve ball, most often they have provided us with an opportunity to make a difference in an area in which we’ve longed to see an improvement.  For me, that has been handwriting mastery.  For others, it has been the role of OT in the educational system as a whole.  This second article in our “OT in the Classroom” series addresses the role of OT as an vehicle for guiding teachers, educational staff, and administrative leaders in striving for and achieving handwriting mastery for their students.  Marie Toole, OTR/L, shares the amazing work that she and the OT staff in her district are doing to Advocate for Change.

An Advocate for Change

by Marie Toole, OTR/L

time for change door geralt pixabayMany years ago, as a new school-based occupational therapist, I was ready to conquer the world. That first year was a blur of referrals and therapy and meetings and learning. The OT staff sat down at the end of that first school year and — after counting up how many referrals we got for handwriting — decided to do something different.

We had to figure out how to handle all these referrals and distinguish between those students who really needed occupational therapy intervention and those who would benefit from good instruction in handwriting from the teacher.  We needed to be agents of change or we were going to be burned out.

Over the last 20 years we have seen a significant drop in our referrals for strictly handwriting.  The referrals we get now are for a myriad of reasons and almost all of them end up with us servicing the child for direct OT interventions.  How did we cut our referrals in half, meet the concerns of the classroom teachers and yet still make sure students have legible handwriting?  Over the years we have employed a number of strategies.  Let me share them with you.

coaching geralt pixabayEducation/Inservices:

Teachers told us they either did not feel comfortable teaching handwriting in the classroom or felt like they were not doing a good job. So we helped.

  • We gave workshops to teachers, paraprofessionals, and parents about hand skills, handwriting, and posture. Building on our handwriting curriculum, we wrote out each letter description, which showed them how to form the letters and gave them the language and developmental order in which to teach letters. Everybody is now using the same language to teach in a consistent manner.
  • Partnering with the physical therapist, we gave an inservice to local preschools on the typical development of the 2- to 6-year old. This helped those teachers to have realistic expectations for hand skill development.
  • With our physical education teachers we developed Classroom Rechargers. These are 20 movement-based activities per grade level that teachers can perform right in their classroom with little-to-no equipment or space.  We put together handwriting warm-ups, exercises, and activities to be done just prior to teaching letter instruction.
  • We showed kindergarten teachers the importance of building the base of hand skills before adding on the challenge of handwriting.
  • We continually give workshops once or twice per year on various topics.  Information, tips, or skills teachers can use the next day in their classroom are the most valuable to them.  We generally have a large audience.
  • When new teachers join our buildings or teachers switch grades, we always make sure to touch base with them and help them navigate the teaching of the handwriting process. Checking in periodically to see how letter instruction is going is always helpful, too.

5 Reasons Why Handwriting Needs a Good SeatErgonomics

Seating and posture were important areas where teachers needed assistance.

  • At the beginning of each school year, we go in and check the desk and chair height for every student on our caseload.  We make sure students fit their work space.
  • We send an email to remind staff how to check for proper desk and chair height and will help any teachers struggling with this. The custodian is our friend, helping us find the right furniture or to adjust desk height.
  • We have also advocated for stand up desks and several of our classrooms now sport at least one stand up desk.  We add sensory equipment — seat cushions, bicycle tubing around the chair legs, and hand tools — for those students who move and fidget.  When students are comfortable and in a good place for learning, it makes handwriting instruction so much easier.     

Pre-referral process

We use a pre-referral process to keep track of teacher requests and to address needs in a timely manner.  

  • Teachers must fill out a basic form telling us their concerns and what they have tried already.
  • The pre-referral forms help us fine tune our classroom observations to an area in which the student may be having challenges, such as math, writing, or organization.
  • We then tailor our classroom observation to those specific areas.  

planning dates condesign pixabayIn the classroom

Planning and coordination are important first steps.

  • At the beginning of each school year we discuss with the classroom teacher and special educator the most convenient time when writing is being taught and we plan our schedules around it. Most of our teachers have been with us long enough to understand the limitations in our schedule and will cooperate to make this work. When we show up for our therapy time, the teachers welcome the extra pair of hands to help with letter instruction, the writing process, typing on Google Docs, or writing poetry.
  • We know the curriculum.  The students do not get pulled from instruction and we get to work in the moment with the students on meaningful work.  We also get to put our eyes on all the students in that classroom and may help other struggling writers as well.
  • We co-teach cursive letter instruction in most of our third grade classrooms as part of our third-graders’ therapy time.  It gives us in-class time and we get to work with the whole class by showing them some multisensory ways to learn letters using sand, chalkboards, or kin-tac cards.
  • We are lucky that we are district employees and have the luxury of having an occasional block of time to observe students in class, on the playground, or in the gym.  We also use our therapy time to work in the classrooms with students on their OT goals.

Early Intervention and Response to Intervention (RtI):

In our district we are lucky to have an administration that support us.  

  • This allows us to go into each kindergarten classroom under regular education for one half hour per week to “SPOT” children who might need help with hand skills.
  • SPOT stands for Speech and OT.  Our “SPOT” time is available to assist the teacher with activities that may be challenging for 5- and 6-year olds. In our OT sessions we might be working on scissor skills, gluing, coloring, and eventually, after months of hand skills training, handwriting.
  • As the year progresses we generally have a small group of students that  we focus on during SPOT.  We do the same activity that the whole class is doing but those students may need more assistance.  These students become our “watch” students in first grade and then we have our entry into the first grade classrooms under RtI.
  •   This took many years of “selling” to our principal. We argued that we could ward off some referrals by giving a little help early rather than a lot of help later. The administration agreed to a trial. After seeing the results, the program stuck.
  • One way we have cemented that progress in our administrators’ minds is to have them conduct their yearly observations of us when we work in the classrooms.  We love to have them come observe us working with a group in the fall, again in January, and later in May.  To see that transformation is like gold in the bank.

Winning over skeptics

Patience and respect guide us in the classroom.

  • It is not always easy and there are some teachers who do not appreciate us coming into their classrooms. In those cases, we take it slow and become a guest in that teacher’s classroom. When they see the intrinsic value that we bring to the table as occupational therapists, most teachers come around.
  • Generally we have found that teachers can’t wait for us to work in their classroom and are bummed when they do not have students who receive OT in their classroom that year. It takes time, sometimes lots of years of trying. But working together as a team shows the student that everyone is on the same page and you have the same expectations for him or her.

teamwork zipnon pixabayTeamwork

Having a strong special education team is helpful as well.  

  • Working with the classroom teacher, special educator, and the rest of the special education team has helped us to fine tune our occupational therapy process.  
  • Often it is the special education teacher who brings concerns or referrals to the occupational therapy staff.

Advocating at the administrative level

Becoming visible is essential.

  • We knew we needed to get good at this or we would continue to struggle year after year.  Our principal, assistant principal, and even the superintendent know who we are.
  • We consistently advocate for what is right for children.  In our 20 plus years, there have been many principals and superintendents at the helm.  We had to get to know them, their goals, and how they liked to work.
  • We asked for OT be represented on the curriculum committee for language arts when administrators revised it many years ago.  We ended up putting a handwriting strand into the curriculum with expectations developmentally appropriate for kindergarten through fourth grade.
  • When the district was thinking of cutting out cursive instruction, we took this on as our mission to research it and make informed decisions.  We took our time, and over the course of three years, we read many research articles and spoke with many other local districts to see what they were doing.  We ultimately decided to keep cursive instruction as an integral part of our third grade curriculum.  
  • When advocating for the SPOT time in kindergarten, we came armed with data to show that it was beneficial.  We constantly print out articles about teaching handwriting and give them to our principal.
  • Being relentless in the pursuit of continually advocating for what is right for children can be tiring.  It is not something that happens overnight.  Looking ahead and looking towards the big picture has helped us to maintain our vision.  Continually putting it in front of administrators keeps it fresh and does not allow stagnation or somebody to forget how important handwriting is in the curriculum.

important note clkerfreevectorimages pixabayOur role

An important point to remember:

  • We cannot become the “handwriting teacher.”  That’s the job of the classroom teacher. We are occupational therapists who look at functional skills and participation in the school curriculum and environment.
  • By empowering teachers to actually teach handwriting before they expect children to write, we advocate for what our students need. Ongoing support and advocacy will encourage teachers to keep teaching proper letter formation. This in turn will allow our OT interventions to remain focused on the functional skills students need to navigate the complex world of school.

Marie Toole, MS, OTR/L Marie L. Toole, MS, OTR/ L, is a pediatric occupational therapist with over 28 years experience in NICU, Early Intervention, and private practice with the last 21 years spent working in public schools. She is NBCOT and SIPT certified as well as a member of AOTA and NHOTA.  Follow her on Twitter @MarieTooleOTNH, on Pinterest marietooleNHOT, and on School Tools for Pediatric Occupational Therapists  where she tweets, pins, and posts about OT, education, autism, and sensory integration, as well as other school related topics.

 Disclaimer: The information shared on the Handwriting With Katherine website, blog, Facebook page, Twitter page, Pinterest page; in the Universal Publishing Handwriting Teachers’ Guides; on any guest blog posts or any other social media is for general informational purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice or evaluation and care from your physician/medical team or any other qualified health care providers. Therefore, the author of these links/posts take no responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk taken by individuals as a result of applying the ideas or resources.
Photos are the property of Handwriting With Katherine and are not to be used in any fashion except as links to the appropriate blog or the Handwriting With Katherine website without the expressed, written permission of Katherine Collmer.

OT and Handwriting Programs: What is our role?


For the month of September, the Handwriting is Fun! Blog will be sharing insights about the role of Occupational Therapy in the classroom.  In recent years, the role of OT, in general, has been changing with the waves of healthcare and education reforms.  Despite a certain amount of turmoil and confusion where those changes may have thrown us a curve ball, most often they have provided us with an opportunity to make a difference in an area in which we’ve longed to see an improvement.  For me, that has been handwriting mastery.  For others, it has been the role of OT in the educational system as a whole.  This first article in our “OT in the Classroom” series addresses the first of these interests – the role of OT in handwriting mastery –  and brings up points that I hope will generate discussion and help us all to learn and grow within our profession.


Handwriting PracticeOT and Handwriting Programs: What is our role?

by Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L





I have been asked often to reveal my “favorite choice” for a handwriting program. The question inevitably arises, “Which handwriting program do you use for instruction in your specialized OT practice?” And the answer is always the same, “I have none.” I’ve actually never considered the selection of one program over another, nor have I recommended one as my “preferred,” feeling that in my practice it is not my role to do that.  My business goals are to assess and remediate children’s handwriting development skills.  My first priority is to identify and target the underlying problems that are revealed in the student’s handwriting struggles.  My next step is to evaluate the capability of the classroom’s handwriting program to facilitate the student’s success with remediation.  If I feel it cannot, then I will speak with the teacher and parents about addressing the student’s needs with a different program.  For the older students, this is commonly not an issue, as they are not receiving handwriting instruction in class.  In both of these cases, I will address the student’s individual needs with a handwriting program that blends with his learning styles and remediation goals.  Handwriting “instruction,” per se, is not the mission of my particular business.


Of course, Occupational Therapy has certainly made a presence in the handwriting program environment. And rightly so, as we understand the underlying developmental skills that build handwriting mastery and our interventions in both instruction and remediation have been effective in advancing students in their handwriting mastery.  (1)  Occupational Therapists have designed effective handwriting programs based upon developmental principles, worked with a handwriting program publisher,* and most certainly have used handwriting programs in their therapy sessions.  But, what IS our role with handwriting programs?  Where does the value of our expertise and the validity of our responsibility fit into the provision of handwriting instruction?  These questions are legitimate and warrant a discussion in search for answers.


1.  What are handwriting programs designed to do?


First, let’s make the distinction between the two types of handwriting programs, the curriculum program and the published handwriting program, and the facets that define each as beneficial.



A curriculum handwriting program is one that is designed to provide

  • structured, consistent, and guided instruction in the development of letter formations, letter alignment, and spacing, both during copying and independent writing tasks;
  • instruction that provides handwriters with the tools to edit and correct their own work;


  • handwriting tasks across the subject areas                                                      that will promote the functional use of that skill.


A published handwriting program is designed to provide:

  • teachers with a structured program that will assist them in providing their students with consistent and guided instruction in the development of letter formations, letter alignment, and spacing, both during copying and independent writing tasks;


  • tools that assist the teachers in their instruction, as well as the students in their learning; and
  • a network of professionals who can guide teachers in their use of the handwriting program.


Published handwriting programs are a facet of a curriculum’s handwriting program. It is ultimately the role of the school to assess different published programs and select the one that fits their students’ and teachers’ needs.


What makes a good handwriting program?

There are a few basic characteristics that are included in the development of an effective curriculum and published handwriting program. Each must be:


  • Structured: The instruction is delivered in a format or plan that allows a developmental progression of skill development.
  • Consistent: The instruction is provided in a format that allows students to practice the skills sufficiently to enhance learning.
  • Guided: The instruction provides tools to assist teachers in their instruction and offers students one-to-one assistance and additional learning strategies during classroom instruction.


These tenets are integral to the development and mastery of handwriting skills. The development of a published handwriting program is a task as complex as the mastery of the skill itself and, therefore, research and experience play a vital role in the development of a good handwriting program. Occupational therapists, educators, and literacy experts have spent a great deal of time, energy, and finances toward building effective and valuable handwriting programs that address the diverse needs of our young learners.   Some published programs offer online teacher assistance, free downloads for creating worksheets, in-class technology to enhance visual and kinesthetic learning, or inexpensive teaching materials to help with school budgets. Some schools have included handwriting instruction as an integral part of their elementary school curriculum, while others are streamlining their instruction to meet overall educational requirements.  But, when it’s all said and done, an effective handwriting program – both a curriculum or a published program – is one that is “structured, consistent, and guided.”


2.  What makes a good fit for an OT-Handwriting Program Relationship?

As a school-based, private practice, or clinic-based occupational therapist, we do not assess or select the handwriting programs that our clients will be mastering in their classrooms…unless, of course, we are on the curriculum selection committee, where we would indeed be an asset.  However, although studies indicate that “having preschool classroom teachers implement an occupational therapy-based curriculum to teach handwriting readiness skills reflects a more inclusive service model that benefits all students,” (1) at present the selection of a handwriting program most often remains in the hands of the school system.  Therefore, at the elementary school level, it isn’t our role to select another program to use in our therapy sessions that we might feel provides a better instructional format.  This gets confusing and does not provide the “structured, consistent, and guided” instruction that builds mastery.  Our role as OT’s is to assess and remediate handwriting development skills….which are the same skills he will need for handwriting mastery no matter which program is being taught in the classroom.  Our expertise guides us in the creation of instructional adaptations that can enhance a student’s learning, as well as cognitive, sensory, and physical suggestions to promote success in the classroom and at home.  This also allows us to consider the student’s individual needs to determine if he would benefit from a different program and if the discussion of a program change is warranted.   In the end, our role as OT’s continues to be the assessment and remediation of handwriting development skills….no matter which program the student is working with in the classroom.

We have a much broader role when we are working with older students (fifth grade and beyond), however, one that allows room for us to introduce a new handwriting program.  Their struggles may result from the lack of a structured, consistent, and guided program in elementary school; or they may have needed the assistance of an OT at that level but had not been provided with those services.  At this point, there would be many choices for us to consider that would meet their needs.

So, I pose the question that, instead of looking for a “good fit for an OT-Handwriting Program Relationship,” wouldn’t the more appropriate question here be


3.  What makes a good fit for an OT-Handwriting Relationship?

April is OT Month!
OT’s build independence by providing information! We are “information stations!”


Building an OT-Handwriting Relationship in the classroom begins with prevention.

One of our primary services has always been to inform our clients about choices and information relative to their needs.  For instance, in the adult community, we are a valuable link between those who are experiencing the results of a traumatic brain injury and the durable equipment options to increase independence in activities of daily living.  In the older community, we can share vital home safety tips about inexpensive modifications that can help clients and their caregivers extend a person’s ability to age in place.  We provide ergonomic and backpack safety information to office workers and students, as well as pain management techniques and tools for those suffering from osteoarthritis.  Moms welcome our early intervention skills as we share information about sensory needs and developmental milestone stages.  We ARE the “information station!”

This integral part of our practice also weaves its thread through our relationship with handwriting development skills.  Prevention is our first step in helping students with their handwriting needs and for building a recognized and valued OT-handwriting relationship.  We are the frontline source for fine- and visual-motor information for teachers and parents and the best member of the community to guide them toward building healthy habits for handwriting success.   In light of our position as “information stations,” we must take time to


  • share information with teachers and parents about pre-handwriting skill development and the appropriate ages for working on grasping patterns and for introducing a pencil;
  • help teachers and parents understand the positive benefits of movement and play in the development of body awareness, physical strength, and sensory skills;
  • become involved in the assessment and acquisition of a developmentally sound handwriting program; and

And we need to do these things BEFORE children are referred to us for occupational therapy to address their handwriting development needs. Prevention first!

information station logo property of handwriting with katherine




Building an OT-Handwriting Relationship in the classroom thrives through student success. 

The benefits of any practice are validated only by their visible successes.  Handwriting development skills are most often “invisible,” with the only evidence of their need for service being a poor handwriting style.  Hence, a functional penmanship style becomes the visible success.  In some instances, the teacher and parent won’t ever become aware of the myriad of underlying skills that we have addressed in our therapy sessions to bring about that result. Most often, however, our work with a student’s handwriting development skills will enhance his successes in other subject areas, validating even further the benefits of addressing handwriting needs.  There are times, of course, when an evaluation of the student’s skills will reveal that his struggles would benefit simply from the provision of a more structured and guided method of instruction, rendering the need for direct services as unnecessary.  The “ounce of prevention” tips offered above can help prevent those students from being referred for services as we assist teachers in assessing their needs and adapting their teaching style to meet them.  But, when a student does arrive at our doorstep with underlying handwriting development needs, it is important for us to have the skills to assess and remediate those needs…no matter which program the student is using in the classroom.  And no matter whether or not he is receiving any handwriting instruction at all.  It is our responsibility to seek continuing education instruction and practice guidance that will add these skills to our tool boxes. Handwriting assessment and remediation is an OT-related service.  And our students’ successes will pave the way for enhanced recognition of the role we play in handwriting mastery.


Handwriting programs are important, for sure.  But as OT’s in general, our primary concern is, and always should be, the development of the underlying skills that form the foundation for handwriting success.


Please join us next week for an article by a guest blogger that will showcase the significant impact that a school-based OT can have in handwriting success!



(1)Lust, C. A., and D. K. Donica. “Effectiveness of a Handwriting Readiness Program in Head Start: A Two-Group Controlled Trial.” American Journal of Occupational Therapy 65.5 (2011): 560-68. Web. 18 Aug. 2015.


* I was honored when Universal Publishing valued occupational therapy and my work by including “Katherine’s OT Tips” in the Teachers’ Editions of their latest edition of their Universal Handwriting Program.  It was a positive way to build a relationship between occupational therapy and a handwriting program publisher.


Katherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/LKatherine J. Collmer, M.Ed., OTR/L, is a pediatric occupational therapist who specializes in the assessment and remediation of handwriting skills and author of the book, “Handwriting Development Assessment and Remediation:  A Practice Model for Occupational Therapists.”  She can be contacted via her website, Handwriting With Katherine.
 Disclaimer: The information shared on the Handwriting With Katherine website, blog, Facebook page, Twitter page, Pinterest page; in the Universal Publishing Handwriting Teachers’ Guides; on any guest blog posts or any other social media is for general informational purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice or evaluation and care from your physician/medical team or any other qualified health care providers. Therefore, the author of these links/posts take no responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk taken by individuals as a result of applying the ideas or resources.
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